What is Natural Bitumen?
Gilsonite created from crude oil after milions of years in high pressure and temperature which is naturally-occurring mixture of bitumen and mineral matter formed by oil seepages in the earth’s crust. In rock form is available in west of Iran between Ilam and Kermanshah and Iraq border.The first utahite came from Caribbean country Trinidad and Tobago and it was contenting 55% hydrocarbon and the rest minerals. Initially this kind of asphalthum used as additive in road construction.There is another origin of Bituminous coal which is coming from other city in Kuhdasht belong to Lorestan province in Iran. The hydrocarbon content is much lower than Ilam and Kermashah and it is just using for foundry.Hydrocarbon content or bitumen content of Natural Bitumen from Kermanshah and Ilam is first quality of Iran Gilsonite and the purity comming up to 98%.
Generally it is mineral hydrocarbon of asphaltite class which is a black solid of fairly bright luster and melts or fuses between 130 and 210C.It is soluble in carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride and many other non-polar organic solvent. The principal deposit of Bitumen powder is found in the Gilanegharb and Ghasreshirin, Kermanshah, Iran as filling in vertical fissures in the mountain calcareous shales, limestone and sandstones.
PUB-LTD company has annual production to be well over eighty thousands tons with a yearly income of nearly three million dollars for the province of Kermanshah. In addition, it`s easy to visualize the commercial importance of this material.Iran Gilsonite is substance composed principally of complex hydrocarbons. They contain very little mineral mater or oxygenated compounds, and are largely soluble in carbon disulphide.
These veins vary in width from several meter and to twenty meters, and vary in length from a few kilometer to as much as thirty or forty km.
Some veins are believed to be fourteen hundred meter. It has been estimated that Utah has a reserve supply of sixteen million tons of this are available for commercial development.
Natural bitumen is very fragile. It shatters easily. Rolling Gilsonite between two drums tends to give the best particle distribution to use as raw material in carbon production.
When we process the Gilsonite from chunks to powder and then heating the asphalthum powder where we drive off the high value volatiles, we get much less material, then we are able to supply volume quantity to our customer.
Gilsonite, being a hydrocarbon, is somewhat soluble in hydrocarbon solvents. It is more soluble in kerosene and naphtha than it is in crude oil. The effect of crude oil on set cement containing gilsonite is negligible beyond the dissolution of exposed gilsonite particles.
Natural asphalt has a melting point of 385°f. Some softening occurs above 24(‘f and particles may tend to fuse together. Because of temperature reduction during circulation, it can used in wells having a static bottom-hole temperature of 300°f and slightly higher.
Natural Bitumen Usages:
Asphalt & pavement:
Using of this mineral in heavy traffic area like junction or bus station it using as additive in paving on special location of roads like bus station or signal points and junction. Due to curing of pavement because of cold or high temperature, weight of trucks and cars, sun,rain,snow road construction companies are looking for new technology and material to use to improve crack and deformation and all above problem. Pars Universal Bitumen supplying gilsonite in the medium course and fine size and playing as resistance against fatigue and deformation. All tests showing significant improvement compared other additives. Gilsonite in permanent deformation Gilsonite is using to increase resistance to permanent deformation, prevent shoving and rutting also cracking during cold temperature.
Pavement additives in hot mix:
Gilsonite using as road pavement additives in hot mix. Natural asphalt and modified Gilsonite are adding directly at the production site of the asphalt and bitumen mixing plant. To use asphalt in road construction in cold weather just use our gilsonite and no need to use any special bitumen! Just bitumen 50-70 is more than enough!
Bitumen binder modifier:
It uses as bitumen binder modifier with various properties. The combine effect of bitumen and Gilsonite in the same base binder,is obvious.Adding 13~14% gilsonite increase performance of asphalt.
Also,viscosity of modified binders by Gilsonite is high. We offer iran Gilsonite for using as alternative modifier to reduce cost of asphalt mixture products and compaction in field. Now discovered, asphalt cement become harder with Gilsonite. Also it`s thinnes with reactive oil. It`s an oil that contains high content unsaturated fatty acids. By using reactive oil, it would cure or react after using cement to highway. Melting or softening point should be near about 300° F. So it easily softened and blended with petroleum asphalt at such temperatures. Adding process should be slow.
Asphalthum use as an extender:
Gilsonite uses to lighten slurry. It also increases the slurry yield. It provides a relatively high-strength set cement who don`t needs much water The reduction of slurry density is primarily the result of the low specific gravity of the gilsonite.
Gilsonite mix water requirements:
Each 25 lb of gilsonite needs One extra gallon of water. P-eba is required to prevent gravitational separation of material with wide variance in density from slurry.
Natural Bitumen in lost circulation:
Trimary use for Gilsonite is in restoring lost circulation. Due to bridging action of angular gilsonite solids at point of lost returns. Its effectiveness is due to particle-size distribution. Large and medium-size particles bridge forming a network which retains finer particles. Thus, a dense deposit is formed which is sealed by the cement. Decreasing the slurry weight by using an extender helps in controlling lost circulation by reducing the hydrostatic pressure.
Gilsonite thickening time and compressive strength:
It`s an inert solid and required to small amount of plus water, so doesn`t much change slurry thickening time. Higher pressing strength is attainable when solid particles are added to a slurry without adding excessive water content. Lab tests detected cements containing gilsonite or ground coal extender have higher strengths than other light or lost-circulation slurries at same slurry weight. However strength is less than the same neat cement systems without it.
powder and rock generation:
natural bitumen metamorphic products of petroleum resulting from combination of influences of time, heat and pressure. Gilsonite in general have been classified by Abraham on the based on animal,vegtebale and mineral. Bituminus coal as above condition found only in Gilanegharb Kermanshah. It is solid asphalt resembling coal very much in appearance.
Natural Bitumen has two types of molecules, a straight carbon and a ringed carbon. When you heat the Gilsonite, the two components separate. Ringed carbon vaporizes is called Volatile. A straight carbon remains and becomes residue, or sometimes called carbon or carbon black.We are exporting carbon in residue form. Volatile after cooling done can used as a fuel . In addition it should refined to segregate sulfur or other elements and add additives.
Liquid is raw material in petrochemical processing also refinery feed stock for cracking to products like gasoline. Usually asphaltite has over 60% volatiles and under 40% residues. Typically residue is in the 36 to 38% range.