The mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, in crystalline form, and its origin is abiogenic (not produced by life processes). A mineral has a certain chemical composition whereas a rock can be a collection of different minerals or mineraloids. The study of minerals is called mineralogy.
Gilsonit is a high-strength bitumen modifier and proven for road surfaces after hot asphalt princip. It is a 99,9% pure natural hydrocarbon without proper filler content and with a melting point at about 150°C. It is a natural bitumen, a petroleum-based solid state, which gets along very well with petroleum bitumen. In the mixture of bitumen and Gilsonit, it takes to the hardness and durability of the Gilsonit, but also retains the flexibility of the bitumen. Thereafter, the low-temperature properties are not affected, it delays grain outbreaks and increases the resistance to deformation of the road construction. Natural Bitumen is a cost efffective and technically viable alternative compared to the use of PMB bitumen.
Gypsum is moderately water-soluble (~2.0–2.5 g/l at 25 °C) and, in contrast to most other salts, it display retrograde solubility, becoming less soluble at higher temperatures. When it is heated in air it loses water and converts first to calcium sulfate hemihydrate, (bassanite, often simply called “plaster”) and, if heated further, to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite). As for anhydrite, its solubility in saline solutions and in brines is also strongly dependent on NaCl concentration.
The name baryte is derived from the Ancient Greek: βαρύς, translit. barús, ‘heavy’. The American spelling is barite. The Mineralogical Association initially accepted “barite” as the official spelling, but recommended adopting the older “baryte” spelling later.
Another names have been used for baryte, including barytine, barytite, barytes, heavy spar, tiff, and blanc fixe.
The main uses of bentonite are for drilling mud, binder (for example: foundry-sand bond, iron ore pelletizer), purifier, absorbent (for example: cat litter), and as a groundwater barrier. As of around 1990, almost half of the US production of bentonite was used for drilling mud.