All about Caustic Soda -NaOH-
Sodium hydroxide, Caustic Soda also known as NaOH is produced in the process of membrane electrolysis. It`s specify by high quality and purity, which confirms European Pharmacopoeia. It`s defines basic quality requirements and test methods for pharmaceutical raw materials. Among the chemical properties differentiating the product from the competition, the low chloride content (<200 ppm) and iron (<15 ppm) are noteworthy. In the production process only inorganic compounds are used.
Caustic Soda Flakes is one of basic industrial raw materials. It used in cosmetics industry, hard (sodium) soap, detergent, exfoliating masks (peeling, chemical dermabrasion) and aseptic.
Caustic Soda NaOH:
NaOH is one of the strongest bases commonly used in industry. Solutions of sodium hydroxide in water are at the upper limit (most basic) of the pH scale. It`s made by electrolysis sodium chloride solutions. This process produce sodium hydroxide and chlorine gas.
NaOH, also known as lye or caustic soda, is an extremely caustic (corrosive and damaging to human tissue) white solid that readily dissolves in water. Used in soaps, rayon, paper, petroleum refining, homes as drain and oven cleaners manufactureres.
In clogged pipes, cleaners that contain NaOH (solid or dissolved in water) convert fats to soap, which dissolves in water. Also, dissolving process in water a great heat is given off. This helps to melt clog. because this, NaOH is very damaging to human tissue (especially eyes).
Some drain cleaners also contain small pieces of aluminum metal. Aluminum reacts with sodium hydroxide in water to produce hydrogen gas. The bubbles of hydrogen gas help to agitate the mixture, helping to dislodge the clog.
- Digestion of wood and bagasse for manufacture of pulp and paper.
- Digestion of wood for manufacture of viscose staple fibre, viscose filament yarn and rayon tyre cord.
- Manufacture of soaps and detergents.
- Digestion of aluminium ore to make alumina as an intermediate in the production of aluminium.
- Dleaching & processing of cotton textiles.
- Regeneration of ion-exchangere sins in water treatment plants.
Sodium Hydroxide (food grade):
- Sodium Hydroxide aka lye or caustic soda is a strong alkaline compound that is used for preparing various foodstuffs. Its uses include the following.
- Hominy and Nixtamal are dried maize (corn) kernels reconstituted by soaking in lye-water. These expand considerably in size and may be further processed by frying to make corn nuts or by drying and grinding to make grits.
- German pretzels are poached in cold sodium hydroxide solution before baking, which contributes to their unique crust.
- Black olives result from normal (green) olives being subjected to a lye-based chemical bath.
- Most yellow coloured Chinese noodles are made with lye-water but are commonly mistaken for containing egg.
Functions of Sodium Hydroxide:
NaOH is inorganic compound used to control pH level. It also, serve as a buffering agent in cosmetics and personal care products. It was used in soaps formulation. Currently it`a Also seen in variety formulas, like bath products, cleansing, fragrances, foot powders, hair dyes and colors, makeup, nail, personal cleanliness products, shampoos, shaving, depilatories, skin care and suntan products, as well as chemical hair straighteners and hair wave sets. It also a part of industrial solvents because of its ability to dissolve grease, oils, fats and protein based deposits. Also it`s seen as an ingredient in toothpastes
It`s FDA & GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) rating as a direct food additive. However, it primarily used in washing and chemical peeling product. It approved for use in cosmetics and personal care products in varying concentrations: 5% by weight in nail cuticle solvents, 2% by weight in hair straighteners for general use, 4.5% by weight in hair straighteners for professional use, up to a pH 12.7 in depilatories, and up to pH 11 in other uses as a pH adjuster.
Safety Measures/Side Effects:
Sodium Hydroxide is considered a moderate hazard ingredient by the Cosmetics Database, which notes concerns regarding cancer, and moderate concerns regarding neurotoxicty, organ system toxicity and irritation. It is classified as “expected to be toxic or harmful” and one or more animal studies show brain and nervous system, metabolic, and sense organ effects at very low doses and there are warnings regarding using this ingredient around the eyes or mouth.
Sodium Hydroxide is, however, a known irritant. Studies by the National Institute for Occupation Safety and Health found that this ingredient causes “Irritation eyes, skin, mucous membrane; pneumonitis; eye, skin burns; temporary loss of hair” and recommends that consumers prevent skin and eye contact. The CDC reports that “Skin contact with sodium hydroxide can cause severe burns with deep ulcerations. Pain and irritation are evident within 3 minutes, but contact with dilute solutions may not cause symptoms for several hours.
Contact with the eye may produce pain and irritation, and in severe cases, clouding of the eye and blindness.” Solutions as weak as .12% have shown to destruct healthy skin cells within one hour. Other studies acknowledge Sodium Hydroxide as a strong irritant that is corrosive to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, but that the severity of the effects are related directly to concentration and pH levels, as well as the length of exposure and skin type.
Caustic Soda is a highly corrosive substance and requires careful handling. There should be no contact with bare skin. It should be stored under dry conditions away from acids, organic chemicals, metals such as aluminium, tin, zinc, lead and their alloys.