PUB-LTD Drilling Additive Products:
Gilsonit as Drilling Additive:
Gilsonit has been used in the oilfield as an additive in drilling fluids. Gilsonit, in various grades and formulations, has been used to combat borehole instability problems, provide lubricity, especially in highly deviated holes, and more recently as a bridging agent to combat differential pressure sticking and provide a law invasion coring fluid. It has been well documented that appropriately formulated Gilsonite products can minimize hole collapse in formations containing water-sensitive, sloughing shales and reduce stuck pipe problems by forming a thin wall cake and an inter-matrix filter cake.
Gilsonit products are currently being widely used in water based, oil based, and synthetic based mud systems worldwide. Blended Gilsonite has proved to be very effective in all water-based systems.
Bentonite is a naturally occurring mineral that is primarily comprised of montmorillonite, a water swellable phyllosilicate. Due to its morphology (platelets) and ability to absorb water, it provides viscosity, suspension and carrying capacity while. Also reducing penetration of water into porous formations or filtration control. Although bentonite can be highly effective at providing the properties listed above, not all results with bentonite are equall. It`s mixture with water, stacks of platelets exfoliate and interact in solution. Additionally, there are also various ions associated with the bentonite.
Calcium chloride uses for all types of drilling and completion applications. These fluids are used in oilfield completion and workover operations to reduce water activity and create osmotic forces to prevent absorption of water by shales. The divalent calcium ion inhibits clay swelling, dispersion and migration. Water containing high concentrations of calcium chloride can be used as a kill fluid in production wells, especially those containing heavy concentrations of carbon dioxide.
Sodium hydroxide highly soluble in water, also readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. In addition, it forms a series of hydrates NaOH·nH
2O. The monohydrate NaOH·H
2O crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. It`s a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns.
Worldwide, 69–77% of baryte is used as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration to suppress high formation pressures and prevent blowouts. As a well is drilled, the bit passes through various formations, each with different characteristics. The deeper the hole, the more baryte is needed as a percentage of the total mud mix. An additional benefit of baryte is that it is non-magnetic and thus does not interfere with magnetic measurements taken in the borehole, either during logging-while-drilling or in separate drill hole logging. Baryte used for drilling petroleum wells can be black, blue, brown or gray depending on the ore body. The baryte is finely ground so that at least 97% of the material, by weight, can pass through a 200-mesh (75 μm) screen, and no more than 30%, by weight, can be less than 6 μm diameter. The ground baryte also must be dense enough so that its specific gravity is 4.2 or greater, soft enough to not damage the bearings of a tricone drill bit, chemically inert, and containing no more than 250 milligrams per kilogram of soluble alkaline salts. In August 2010, the American Petroleum Institute published specifications to modify the 4.2 drilling grade standards for baryte to include 4.1 SG materials.